Scientific instrument used for carbon dating
The results indicate that governments should subside fossil fuels by about 18 US$/tonne of CO, rather than impose carbon taxes.Energy Balance Climate Sensitivity The most important parameter in determining the economic impact of climate change is the sensitivity of the climate to greenhouse gas emissions.The IPCC did not provide a 95% upper estimate of ECS, but estimates the 90% upper limit at 6 °C.
He derived a new lower estimate of aerosol forcing of -1.0 W/m.is the change in global average temperature between two periods, is the change in forcing between the two periods, and is the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance, which is the rate of heat uptake of the climate system.The oceans account for over 90% of the climate system heat uptake.Aerosols have a direct effect and an indirect effect from aerosol-cloud interactions, both of which are estimated to cause cooling.Aerosols are the dominant contribution to uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates.
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This allows climate models to have high sensitivity to greenhouse gases while still roughly matching the historic temperature record.