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The concept of the wristwatch goes back to the production of the very earliest watches in the 16th century.Elizabeth I of England received a wristwatch from Robert Dudley in 1571, described as an arm watch.In the 1960s the electronic quartz watch was invented, which was powered by a battery and kept time with a vibrating quartz crystal.
Officers in the British Army began using wristwatches during colonial military campaigns in the 1880s, such as during the Anglo-Burma War of 1885.
Improvements in manufacturing such as the tooth-cutting machine devised by Robert Hooke allowed some increase in the volume of watch production, although finishing and assembling was still done by hand until well into the 19th century.
A major cause of error in balance wheel timepieces, caused by changes in elasticity of the balance spring from temperature changes, was solved by the bimetallic temperature compensated balance wheel invented in 1765 by Pierre Le Roy and improved by Thomas Earnshaw.
Early models were essentially standard pocket-watches fitted to a leather strap but, by the early 20th century, manufacturers began producing purpose-built wristwatches.
The Swiss company Dimier Frères & Cie patented a wristwatch design with the now standard wire lugs in 1903.
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This innovation increased watches' accuracy enormously, reducing error from perhaps several hours per day resulting in the addition of the minute hand to the face from around 1680 in Britain and 1700 in France.